3 Chapter Basic knowledge

    • Basic knowledge



      ■ Official country name



         Kingdom of Morocco



         English inscription: Kingdom of Morocco



         Arabic expression: المملكة المغربية



      ■ National flag




        Crimson is the traditional color of the Malawi royal family, which is said to be the founder of the Moroccan people, the central five-pointed star is depicted by Islamic prophet "Suleiman's seal" in sacred green. It was enacted when I became independent from France and Spain in 1956.







      ● Area · Country





         Approximately 446,000 square kilometers (about 1.2 times as large as Japan)









      Located in the northwestern part of the continent of Africa, Algeria and Tunisia belong to the Maghreb (meaning the end of the West in Arabic). The west faces the Atlantic Ocean, and the north confronts Spain across the Mediterranean Sea. In the narrowest part of the Strait of Gibraltar which is the entrance part of the Mediterranean Sea, Spain is only 14 kilometers away. In addition, the border is border with Algeria in the east and Saharan Arab democratic republic (Western Sahara) in the south. Although Western Sahara has been effectively controlled by Morocco after the "Western Sahara War" after Spain's rule, it is not internationally recognized as a territory, it is regarded as Morocco's biggest diplomatic issue / territorial issue .


       【Map of Morocco】







       ■ Capital city








      English notation Rabat

      Arabic expression الرباط al-ribāṭ

      Rabat means "a city wall city", and its name comes from the fact that in the 12th century a robust castle wall was created as an attack base against Spain. In modern times it became the capital during the French colonial period, and after independence it will become the capital as it is to the present. Many administrative agencies and embassies of various countries are placed as the center of politics. The city has a population of about 570,000 people (2014), but the population of urban areas with adjacent Sare and Tamera has reached about 2 million, the second largest urban area of ​​Morocco, next to Casablanca.






      Although the climate of Morocco shows various aspects depending on the region, Casablanca, Rabat located in the Atlantic coast, Tanger etc. facing the Mediterranean are relatively mild. Many of the coastal areas belong to the Mediterranean climate zone affected by the northeastern trade wind, which is very dry between February and March and from June to August, but it will also rain in other seasons. Inland Marrakesh and others are burning in excess of 40 degrees in the summer, desert spreading further inland. There is also snow in the Atlas Mountains that passes through Morocco from the northeast to the southwest and exceeds 3,000 meters above sea level.


      【Climate of Casablanca】



      Lowest temperature ()

      Highest temperature ()

      Precipitation amount (㎜)






























































      Source:World Meteorological Organization




      【Climate of Marrakesh】


      Lowest temperature ()

      Highest temperature ()

      Precipitation amount(㎜)






























































      Source:World Meteorological Organization



      ■ Time difference


      -9 hours (UTC + 1) Daylight Saving Time: -8 hours




      Japan time minus 9 hours is Morocco time. For example, at midday of Japan time, it is 3 o'clock in Morocco and 9 pm in Japan time is Morocco noon. However, daylight saving time has been introduced, the period is long from the end of March to the end of October year, the time difference is -8 hours. However, it is not applicable during the period of Ramadan (Islamic fasting) so be careful.



      ■ Population


      33.92 million (World Bank in 2014)




      The population of Morocco is 33.92 million, and the population growth rate since entering the 21st century is stable around 1.4% (World Bank). It is clearly different from the situation of "multiply death" occurring in sub-Saharan low-income countries where explosive population growth continues, the total special fertility rate is relatively lower than 2.7 (World Bank), the average life expectancy is 71 years old (2013 Year WHO) and high is characterized. The age group is 27.2% for 14 years old or younger, 63.1% for 15 to 59 years old, 10.7% for those over age 60 (2015 estimated by the United Nations), the population ratio of the young to the aged production age population is high, the population bonus It can be said that the period is on.


      【Morocco's population pyramid (2015)】




      Source:United States Census Burea




      ■ Language




      Official language: Arabic, Berber language Sub-official language: French

      Major ethnic groups in Morocco are Arabs and Berbers. It is said that the population ratio is roughly 2 to 1, but because of mixed ethnicity and ethnic statistics, the exact figures are unknown. Although the official language was only Arabic in the past, according to the new constitution amended in response to democratization demands by the Arab Spring, Berber became the official language in 2011. Also, in Morocco the influence of France, formerly a former sacred country, is still remarkable and the second language is French. In business scenes, higher education, and media, French is often used, it can be said that it is in the position as a quasi-official language.


      ■ Religion


      The majority of the people are Muslim Sunni. Muslims are stipulated as state religions, but freedom of religion is guaranteed by the Constitution, Christianity and Judaism are also recognized. Since the King is head of state and is in the position of a religious leader, he is not separated from his religion. However, in general it is said that there is a tendency to be tolerant of the diversity of religious norms, and to tend to be worldly oriented. The "Fair Development Party (PJD)" that won the parliamentary election in 2011 and became a ruling party is a moderate Islamic party, which does not call for the construction of a state based on the Islamic law in the party platform, and clarifies secular attitudes.


      ■ Currency



      Dirham (approximately: DH) 1 Dirham = 12.3 yen (as of October 7, 2015)




      The currency unit is Dirham (DH), and there is a Sun team (C) as an auxiliary currency unit. 100 C corresponds to 1 DH. There are 8 types of coins (1C, 5C, 10C, 20C, 50C, 1DH, 5DH, 10DH) and five types of banknotes (10DH, 20DH, 50DH, 100DH, 200DH).


      【Dirham / Japanese yen chart】









      ■ Political system



      [Political system] Constitutional monarchy


      [Head of state] King Mohammed VI (chief of politics and the army)


      [Government] Prime Minister: Abdurira Benkiran (2011 ~)

      Foreign Minister: Salahuddin Mezar (From 2013)


      [Diet] Bicameral system

      House of Representatives: 395 seats and a term of five years

      House of Councilors: 90 to 120 seats and a term of six years (from September 2015)


      The king Mohammed VI who crowned in 1999 admits a multi-party system while adhering to the constitutional monarchy (royal government), taking a liberal position that emphasizes the promotion of a liberal economy and respect for human rights. Among Arab countries taking constitutional monarchy, it is one of the few countries with Diet and constitution.


      In July 2011, the Constitution was revised quickly, including the reduction of the authority of the king and the strengthening of prime ministerial authority in response to the "Arab Spring". In the past, the king appointed the prime minister, but after the revision it came to be elected from the ruling camp.



      ■ History



      [The arrival of Islam and the rule of the royal family] (7th to 19th centuries)




      The invasion by the Arabs began in the 7th century, and Muslims came into Morocco. In the 8th century the dynasty of the Muslim dynasty (Idriside morning) rose, and after the 4th dynasty (Almorrabid morning, Almohaddo, Morinidian, Sardinian), it became the current Moroccan royal family Alawy morning.


      [Interference between imperialism and European power] (19th century - first half of the 20th century)




      At the end of the 19th century, interference with the African continent of the European power was intensified, Alawi - Morocco was defeated by "defeat in Spain / Morocco War" (1859), the conclusion of unequal treaties with Britain, Spain and France I will continue. From the French Treaty (1904), most of the country's territory was French territory, the Spanish territory of the northern reef region by the French West Treaty (1912), the Tangier (Tangier) in 1923 became the international Morocco became a management city, Morocco was divided into three and began to be governed.


      [Morocco independence] (1956)




      In the trend of ethnic independence globally after the Second World War, Morocco made independence from France in 1956. Between 1956 and 1957 the Spanish territory returned except for some enclaves, Tangier also belonged to Morocco. Muhammad V changed the title of Sultan to the throne and the country name became the Kingdom of Morocco.


      [Hasan II era] (1961 - 1999)




      In 1961 Muhammad V died and Prince Hasan adhered to the king. In 1962 the Constitution was enacted and became a constitutional monarchy state with strong authority of the King. Hasan II adopted a moderate position to balance the West and the Arab world, such as supporting the Arab side in the Palestinian issue, while trying to promote economic development with emphasis on relations with Western countries such as America and Western Europe . Domestically, dissatisfaction with the powerful method increased, and in the 1970s there were attempted assassination twice and attempted coup attempts, increasing instability.


      [Association of Western Sahara "Green Marching"] (1976)




      After World War II Spain's ownership continued in Western Sahara, but both countries of Morocco and Mauritania claim their ownership. In the year 1976, the Moroccan Government led the 350,000 Moroccan citizens unarmed and transcended "Green Great March" will be held. On the other hand, the Polisario front aiming for independence of the Sahara-Arab democratic republic developed support against guerrilla with the support of Algeria. Mauritania abandoned its territorial rights, but Morocco continues to dominate. In 1991 the ceasefire agreed and decided by the UN Security Council to be independent or attributable to residents voting by Western Sahara residents. However, it has not been put into practice and it is an unsolved problem.



      [Governance by Mohammed VI] (1999 ~)


      Along with the death of Hasan II, King Mohammed VI thronged in 1999. While maintaining the constitutional monarchy, we approached legalism and multi-party system, and we embarked on a direction closer to Western Europe, which respects the liberal economy and human rights. In 2004, the Family Law was amended to improve the status of women, the "National Human Development Initiative (INDH)" began in 2005, efforts such as eliminating poverty and correcting disparities are aggressively undertaken It began.


      ["Arab Spring" and democratization] (2010 - 2011)


      The democratization movement "Arab Spring" that began in Tunisia in 2010 has also spread to Morocco. From the radicals appealing the abolition of the royal government to the moderate to support the reform due to the shrinking of the kingdom, the two sides strengthened their claim, and in 2011 a demo of 10,000 people called the "February 20 movement" occurred in major cities . In response to this situation, in March 2011 Mohammed VI indicated a proposed amendment to the Constitution including the reduction of authority of the King, strengthening power of the prime minister and parliament, division of three powers, and so on. A referendum amendment was passed after a referendum was held in July of the same year. In November, the House of Representatives (House of Representatives) election was held under the revised Constitution, and a new Benkiran cabinet with strong prime ministerial authority was established. As radical Arab states were confused due to radical reforms, Morocco became democratized through a moderate process, political situation and economy remained stable.


      ■ Education system


      Education system of Morocco is 6, 3, 3 · system, 6 years of elementary school (6 to 12 years old), junior high school 3 years (12 to 15 years old), high school 3 years (15 years old to 19 years Age) has become. Elementary school and junior high school are positioned as basic education curriculum, not rights education, not compulsory education, public schools are free. Classes at public elementary schools are basically done in Arabic, but there is always a French class from the lower grade, and there are English classes at junior high school. There are many private schools in urban areas.



      Since the 1990s, the Moroccan Government has been working on improving literacy rate and improving educational access, with educational reform as an important issue. The literacy rate over the age of 15 years greatly improved from 32.2% (1982) to 67.1% (2011), but the gender difference is large, the male 76.1% (2011), the women 57.6% (2011) And it is about 20% lower. The enrollment rate has improved from 71% (1999) to 96.6% (2011), junior high school from 37% (2005) to 53.9% (2011), the enrollment rate of the ural area which is half of the urban area and the lowness of the difference between gender differences is stillconcerned. In 2005, the "National Human Development Initiative (INDH)" has started as a national project aiming at resolving poverty and disparity, and further improvement of educational access and disparity correction are expected in the future.


      【Education system in Morocco】