1 Chapter Basic knowledge

    • Basic knowledge

      ■ Official country name → Republic of Kenya   ■ English Name: Republic of Kenya   National flag It is a national flag established in 1963 at the time of independence from British colony. Black is the proud color of the Kenyan, red is blood shed for independence, green is blessed nature, white is peace and unity, the central emblem shows shields and spears of the Maasai tribe.
      ■ Area · Country land → about 58.3 square kilometers (about 1.5 times as large as Japan) It is located around the equator of East Africa, the border with the border with Ethiopia and South Sudan in the north, Uganda in the west, Uganda in the south, Tanzania in the south and Somalia in the east and the coastline 480 km in the south east facing the Indian Ocean . Kenya is a country with many highlands, divided into "highland Kenya" in the southeastern part and "lowland Kenya" near the Indian Ocean coast and the northern border, at an altitude of 900 meters. Generally, the western part is an area with high altitude, mountain Kenya (5,200 m) is located just under the equator of the central land. It is also famous for the north-south penetration of the African Earth Ditch (Lift Valley).
      ■ Capital → Nairobi The capital city of Nairobi is the largest city in East Africa with a population of about 3.6 million people in the city area (2013) and 4.73 million people in the urban area population (2015 estimate of the UN Population Fund). It is the center of economy that generates half of GDP of Kenya, it is also the central city of East Africa. It is also an international city where UN agencies such as the United Nations Environment Program (UNEP) and the UN Human Settlement Program (UN-HABITAT) are located. Nairobi means "cold water" in Masai. Located at an altitude of about 1600 m of the Kenya Plateau that is close to the equator, it is located on the land pattern where the climate is cool and rich in water. Development by British colonists began at the end of the 19th century and became the capital of British East and Africa in 1907. After the independence of the Republic of Kenya in 1963, it became the capital and it is now.
      The population inflow from rural areas has progressed from the 20th century to the 21st century, and in recent years the population growth rate is as high as 5.5% on average annually, and it is estimated that the population of the city area will reach 5.2 million in 2030. Along with the rapid population increase, traffic congestion, expansion of slums, deterioration of security have become serious problems, the Kenyan government · Nairobi City is based on the "Nairobi City Master Plan (NIUPLAN) 2030" to improve urban functions I am aiming for.   ■ Population → 44.86 million (World Bank in 2014)
      The population of Kenya continues to increase rapidly. It is 20 million in 1986, 30 million in 1999, over 40 million in 2010, and 44.86 million (World Bank) as of 2014. In recent years, the population has increased by about 1 million every year, and the average annual increase rate is about 2.6% high. According to the United Nations' forecast, it is 65.41 million in 2030 and 95.5 million in 2050. As can be said to many African countries, the birthrate is high and the natural increase continues, and when you look at the population pyramid it is Mt. Fuji type (pyramid type) with many young people population. When the average life expectancy is 60 years old (59 years old, 62 years old), there are more than 20 years compared with developed countries, but the death rate under 5 years from 11.0% (2000) to 7.3% (2012) And has been improved.
      Climate Since the climate of Kenya is affected by the monsoon from the southeast, the rainy season and the dry season are clear in many areas. Nairobi Regions around Lake Victoria in southeastern Kenya Highlands and Kisumu have rainy season twice a year, from March to June in the "heavy rainy season", October to December as the "rainy season" , Other than the dry season. Nairobi has little temperature difference throughout the year, and although it is near the equator, the climate is easy for the plateau to spend. Meanwhile, the Indian Ocean coast, such as Mombasa, belongs to the tropical savanna climate and is hot and humid throughout the year. Also, the border areas of the northeast belong to step climate and desert climate, it is very hot and dry.
      ■ Time difference → -6 hours (UTC + 3) It takes Eastern Africa Time (EAT), it will be minus 6 hours in Japan time. For example, the noon in Japan time is 6 am in Kenya. Also, 6 pm Japan time is the noon of Nigeria. Kenya time is 3 hours ahead of Greenwich Mean Time and the time difference with Japan is -6 hours. We do not introduce daylight saving time.   ■ Currency → Kenya · Shilling (roughly: KSh) 1 Kenya Shilling = 1.16 yen (as of December 25, 2015) The currency unit is Kenya Shilling and the currency symbol is KSh. Saint (1 KSh = 100 cents) which is an auxiliary currency exists, but it is not very circulated. There are five types of banknotes, 1000 Ksh, 500 Ksh, 200 Ksh, 100 Ksh, and 50 Ksh. There are eight kinds of coins, 40 Ksh, 20 Ksh, 10 Ksh, 5 Ksh, 1 Ksh, 50 cm, 10 cm, 5 cm, but it is thought that the distribution volume is less than 5 Ksh.
      Ethnic groups Kenya is a multiethnic country, and it is said that there are 42 ethnic groups. The main ethnic groups are Kikuyu 22%, Rujia 14%, Luo 13%, Karenzin 12%, Kamba 11%, Kishi 6%, Meru 6% family, other African ethnic groups total I have 15%. There are also British and Indian (Indian) who have a small but significant economic influence. In Kenya ethnic conflict has become a challenge since the foundation. There is also a history that preferential treatment of specific ethnic groups has been openly done by presidential ethnic groups, and in 2007 - 2008 riots triggered by campaign to protest cheating in election results are called "Kenyan crisis" It expanded to ethnic conflict and issued a large number of dead.
      ■ Language → Country language: Swahili, official language: English, Swahili The Swahili language widely used in East Africa, such as Tanzania and Uganda, is regarded as the national language of Kenya. The official language was English for a long time against the background which was a British colony, but it became two in English and Swahili by the 2010 constitutional amendment. It is said that in the current situation, English is often used following the traditional one. Because Kenya is a multi-ethnic country, it is in a somewhat complicated language situation that there are each ethnic languages ​​such as Kikuyu language, Ruiya language, Swahili language which is a wide East African language, and English one more official language. English is used mostly in secondary education and in Swahili is one of the countries with the most English speakers.   Religion
      Christians are majority, Protestants account for 47.4%, Catholics accounts for 23.3%, and other occupies 82.5% including ancient Christianity. Then Muslims are 11.1%, traditional religions are 1.6%, there are also a few Hindus. These religious distributions are based on the history of Kenya, which has long been active in contact, movement and trade with various ethnic groups. Catholic brought by the Portuguese who visited during the Great Voyages, Protestants settled in the UK colonial period, ancient Christianity brought via Ethiopia, coastal regions and Somali border flourished as the trade base of Arab merchants Islam, Hinduism by Indians who was brought as a labor force during British colonial era.
    • Political system of Kenya

      [Political system] Republic (Presidential system) [Head of state] President Uhuru Kenyatta (Inaugural term 5 Years in April 2013) [Diet] National Assembly (Bicameral System Senate · House) Senate: 68 seats (term of office is 5 years) House: 350 seats (term of office is 5 years) ※ Transition from single room system to bicameral system in 2013 [Government] Vice President William Luto Foreign Minister / International Trade Commission Amina Mohamed A referendum was revised in 2010 to revise the Constitution, and a new constitution including provisions such as election system reform, land ownership reform, restrictions on presidential powers, establishment of Islamic courts, was approved. It was held under the new Constitution from the presidential election in 2013 and the parliamentary election, and the National Assembly became a bicameral system.
    • History of Kenya

       ■ The arrival of Arabs and Swahili civilization (~ 10th century)
      Arabic merchants frequently visited in the East Africa region where Bantu language farmers and Nile language pastorists settled for a long time from the 7th to the 8th centuries and trade bases were constructed in coastal areas of Indian Ocean such as Mombasa I will. In the 10th century, the Swahili language was born with Bantu and Arabic blended, and the Swahili civilization with prosperous trading prospers.  ■ Age of the Great Voyages and the Empire of the Oman (15th - 18th centuries) At the end of the 15th century Mombasa will be the base for the Portuguese Far East. In the 17th century the Arab influence was reinstated and then under the rule of the Oman empire expanded to coastal areas from the Arabian Peninsula to East Africa by ocean trade.

      British colonial era (19th century - 20th century) Efforts by European countries in the 19th century will become active in Africa, East Africa region will be battled by Germany and the UK. By Berlin conference that begins in 1885, each country in Africa split by the European decision, the British East Africa Company established in 1888, through the East African protectorate, became a colony of the United Kingdom under the direct control in 1920. Meanwhile, a railroad was built from Mombasa to Uganda, and British rule would go inland. Many Indians are brought in for this railway construction and will eventually settle out.  ■ The beginning of ethnic movement (from 1920) Political movement is beginning to seek the independence movement from the British colonial rule as the center of the Kikuyu in the 1920s, Kikuyu in the 1940s, Luo group, Kenya and Africa student alliance with multiple tribes such as the Kamba people (KASU) is formed, In 1947 Jomo Kenyatta joined the organization of the Kenya-Africa Alliance (KAU).
      ■ "Maumau Movement" and the End of Colonial Control (1952 - 1960) In 1952, following the raid of white farms by the radical Kenya Land Freedom Forces (KLFA) separated from KAU, an independent movement "Maumau Movement" will occur, intensifying and expanding. The intense resistance movement continued to respond to the regular army that the British launched in guerrilla warfare, but resulted in thousands of arrests including Jomo Kenyatta and more than 10,000 dead people. However, the British will change policy of colonial policy as a trigger. ■ Kenya's independence and Kenyatta regime (1963 - 1978) In 1963 Kenya became independent as Kingdom of the United Kingdom and Jomo Kenyatta who was released in the previous year becomes prime minister. In 1964, we moved to the Republic, where Jomo Kenyatta became the first President. The Kenyatta administration will continue until the president of Kenyatta died in 1978 under the rule of one party of the Kenya-African National Union (KANU) in effect.
      ■ Moi administration and one-party dictatorship system (1978 - 2002) Daniel Arape Moy who was vice president at the Kenyatta regime appointed president in 1978. In 1982 the National Assembly officially approved a one-party state, the constitution was also revised. In addition, the conflict with the Kikuyu group expanded due to the preferential treatment of the Karenzin people who are from President Moi. Criticism of authoritarian methods such as oppression of dissidents, multi-party system revived in 1991, but the opposition forces are not aligned, President Moy repeatedly reelected to maintain the long-term administration for 5 years 24 years Did. ■ Kibaki Great Government Administration and Democratization (2002 - 2013) In the 2002 general election, KANU split and the coalition with a small party "National Rainbow Coalition" won, Muwaisi Kibaki was elected the third president, and the administration changed in 24 years It was. Freedom of speech and democratization advanced by the coalition government, but criticism of preferential treatment to the tribal people of the Kikuyu family and a constitutional amendment plan will face difficult management such as rejection by referendum. ■ Kenya crisis (2007 - 2008)

      The presidential election in December 2007 became the first match of Kibaki vs Lyra Odininga (ODM: Orange Democracy Movement) aiming for the second term, and the election management committee won the Kibaki election on December 30 in Odininga dominance observation Announced. The opposition parties protested electoral injustice turned into a riot, a violent attack on the Kikuyu group and ethnic conflict occurred in various parts of the country. With the mediation of Secretary-General Kofi Annan of the United Nations, President Kibaki became a coalition government, Prime Minister Odininga, and in the next February the turmoil had converged, but the disaster exceeded 1,500 deaths and 500,000 domestic refugees.  
      ■ Ufur Kenyatta regime was born (from 2013)
      President Jomo Kenyatta's son Ufur Kenyatta (TNA: National Association) has defeated Odininga (ODM) in the March 2013 general election, becoming the 4th president, centering on the National Union (TNA) It is a coalition government by "JUBILEE Union". In addition to reconciliation between ethnic groups, which is a challenge since the independence, countermeasures against terrorism by Islamic extremist groups such as Al Shahab were challenged and "Vision 2030" aiming to enter middle-income countries by 2030, Improvement of economy and economic growth, improvement of infrastructure in public health and education field.

    • Education system

      The educational system in Kenya has adopted the 7-4-2-3 system based on the educational system of the former religious country Britain, but the educational system reform was carried out in 1985, the current 8-4-4 system have become. Primary school is 6 to 14 years old, secondary education (secondary school) is 14 to 18 years old, and tertiary education is over 18 years old. 
      Due to the UN Millennium Goals (MDGs) and the Kenyan Government's commitment that "All children can complete primary education", the primary school was made free in 2003 and compulsory education in 2010. However, because there is a burden of facility expenses, etc. in fact, some children can not attend school due to the economic circumstances of their parents, enrollment rate is around 80%. Especially in the eastern and northern regions the enrollment rate is low, and it is said that there is a disparity from urban areas such as Nairobi and Mombasa.
      In Kenya, where population growth rate is high, less than 15 years old accounts for about 40% of the population, and the number of school-age children is rapidly increasing. As a result, the shortage of public school facilities and teachers is a serious problem, and children of wealthy families are often sent to expensive private schools. Education is basically done in English, but it is said that Swahili language education added to the official language in 2010 has become active actively in recent years. Secondary schools have general schools and technical schools, and there are public schools such as national, state and county, private schools. At the end of the primary school there is a uniform nationwide primary education end certification exam (KCPE), and public schools are allocated to the national schools from the top according to the examination results. At the completion of the secondary school there is the Secondary Education Termination Certification System (KCSE), which determines the higher education facilities to enroll.
      Higher education has two- to three-year vocational and technical vocational schools and four-year college. The number of students going to higher education has also increased rapidly due to the increase in population and the improvement of primary education, and one of the educational circumstances of Kenya is that there are many studying abroad in England and India.